Frozen string literal pragma

Since string literals will be frozen by default in Ruby 3, the frozen_string_literal pragma is at your disposal to prepare for the future.

# frozen_string_literal: true

hello = "Hello"
hello << " world!" # => RuntimeError: can't modify frozen String

This is done for performance reasons; other advantages of immutable objects are simplicity, thread-safety, and less prone to errors.

String literals create immutable string objects. But string objects themselves is mutable by default and will always be:

# frozen_string_literal: true

hello =   # produces mutable string

hello << "Hello"     # legit call
hello << " world!"   #

hello # => "Hello world!"

In Rails if you are doing something like this:

sql =  "SELECT #{sec_id}, pt.path, st.doc_count"
sql << "FROM #{stats_tablename} AS st"
sql << "JOIN #{path_tablename} AS pt ON (st.path_id ="

With the pragma it should look like so:

# frozen_string_literal: true

sql ="SELECT #{sec_id}, pt.path, st.doc_count")
sql << "FROM #{stats_tablename} AS st"
sql << "JOIN #{path_tablename} AS pt ON (st.path_id ="

Safe navigation operator

We used to do user.try(:company).try(:name) the rails way or user && && the ruby way, but now we can do it as user&.company&.name everywhere. It’s definitely shorter. Also I’d suggest that code not go too deep down the chain as per the Law of Demeter and just have user&.company_name instead.

Funny thing: Matz initially agreed on user.?company.?name syntax, but later reconsidered his decision:

I think about this for a while, and thinking of introducing &. instead of .?, because:

  • .? is similar to ?. in Swift and other languages, but is different anyway.
  • Since ? is a valid suffix of method names in Ruby, we already see a lot of question marks in our programs.
  • u&.profile reminds us as short form of u && u.profile.

But behavior of &. should be kept, i.e. it should skip nil but recognize false.


Did you mean?

did_you_mean became part of Ruby as bundled gem (bundled gems are default gems which come preinstalled with ruby).

Watch this:

hello = "hello"

puts hell

# undefined local variable or method ‘hell’ for main:Object
# Did you mean? hello

How nice is that? Can’t wait until ruby introduces “friend mode”, where on every error it will print: “You’re doing a great job! Keep going, man! You’re almost there”.

This is it on major Ruby 2.3.0-preview1 features, continue by looking at full changelog.

Good day!